JSN Blank - шаблон joomla Продвижение

 

ELKHTAB MOHAMMED ABDALLA ADAM
B.Sc. in Agriculture
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Khartoum
2006
A thesis Submitted to University of Khartoum in partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree of Master of Science (Agric.).
Supervisor
Dr. Ibrahim Saeed Ibrahim

 

 

 


CO. Supervisor
Dr. Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad
Department of Soil and Environment Science
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Khartoum
2010
DEDIACATION
TO MY
FATHER, MOTHER,
BROTHERS AND SISTERS
TO MY TEACHERS
AND MY FRIENDS
With love
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Thanks to Allah Almighty who give me the health and courage to complete this work.
I would like to express my deepest thanks and sincere appreciation to my supervisor Dr. Ibrahim Saeed Ibrahim, for his close supervision, valuable suggestions and fruitful criticism throughout the course of the study.
My thanks are also due to my co-supervisor Dr. Sarra A. M. Saad for her valuable advice, supervision and personal guidness.
I am indebted to Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, which sponsored this study.
My sincere gratitude and special thanks are due to all staff of the Department of Environmental pollution- Environment and Natural Recourses Research Institute (ENRRI) - National Center for Research (NCR) and to staff of the Department of Soil and Environment sciences– Faculty of Agriculture – University of Khartoum, for their unlimited help.
My thanks are also extended to my friends and colleagues, who were ready to give any assistance I asked for to complete this work
Abstract
Effect of compost and vermicompost produced from cotton residues and farmyard manure on teff grass (Eragrostis tef Zucc. Trotter) growth.
By: Elkhtab Mohamed abdalla Adam
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of earthworms to increase the rate of decomposition during the process of organic fertilizer production from cotton residues and farmyard manure as well as to compare between the effects of organic fertilizer in comparison with inorganic fertilizers using teff plant (Eragrostis tef Zucc.Trotter) as a test crop.
Composting was done in the demonstration Farm - Faculty of Agriculture University of Khartoum – Shambat. The four organic fertilizers were: cotton residues +soil, cotton residues +soil+ earthworms, cotton residues + soil+ farmyard manure and cotton residues + soil+ farmyard manure +earthworms. During composting sample were taken monthly and chemically analyzed for the following: pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, ammonium, ash, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, carbon: nitrogen ratio, total potassium and trace elements (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn).
Two pot experiments were conducting using teff plant for two seasons during 2008-2009, the effect of the four organic fertilizers was compared to that chemical fertilizer and control. The treatments were : cotton residues +soil = 1N, cotton residues + soil = 2N, cotton residues + soil+ earthworms =1N, cotton residues + soil+ earthworms = 2N, cotton residues +soil +farmyard manure = 1N, cotton residues +soil + farmyard manure =2N, cotton residues +soil+ farmyard manure+ earthworms = 1N, cotton residues + soil+ farmyard manure+ earthworms = 2N, urea = 1N+super phosphate =1P, urea = 2N+super phosphate =1P and control =0N and 0P), the design used was complete randomized design(CRD) with four replicates.
At the end of both seasons plant growth parameters measured included: plant height (cm), leaves number, tillers number and fresh weight. In addition plant samples were analyzed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Acidity, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus

 

Click here to View

 

 


المورد الوراثي ليس هو فقط ذلك الأصل الوراثي النباتي أو الحيواني أو الكائن الدقيق النادر ولكنه

حلقات متكاملة تشمل في داخلها ذلك الأصل الوراثي، المعارف التقليدية التي تحيط بذلك المورد الوراثي،

والممارسات المحلية التي تراكمت عبر السنين وعبر أجيال عديدة لتصبح علامة مميزة لمجتمع ما بكل ما فيه من حيوية وخبرات وتميز في

التعامل والتداول الذي قد يصل في بعض المجتمعات إلى الإرتباط الروحي بين تلك المجتمعات وذلك الأصل الوراثي الذي قد يمثل الحضارة والأصالة . ففي بعض المجتمعات المورد الوراثي هو جزء من تقاليد الحياة أو ما بعد الحياة. فقد ظهرت أشجار اللوز (النُقل) Almond في اليونان 8000 سنة قبل الميلاد ، وانتشرت في شرق البحر المتوسط خلال 3000 سنة قبل الميلاد ولكنها اكتشفت في مقبرة الملك المصري الصغير توت عنخ آمون الذي توفي سنة 1325 قبل الميلاد وقد وضعت هناك كما يزعمون حتى تكون مصدر للغذاء والنماء للملك الصغير عند البعث

 

مشاهدة اضغط هنا

.

 

 

 

THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SYSTEM OF SUDAN

 

 

Agricultural research (AR) in Sudan dates back to the turn of the century. Formal AR began in the northern
province in 1902 and near Khartoum in 1903 to explore the possibilities of growing cotton under irrigation. This was
followed shortly by similar work at Rumbek and Wau, in the south, for rain-grown cotton. The Wellcome Tropical
Research Laboratories were established in Khartoum in 1903, with emphasis on medical research, but they also


conducted chemical and entomological research related to agriculture. Botanical and agricultural research started in
1904 at Shambat Research Station. Pilot schemes and experiments by the Sudan Plantation Syndicate showed that
cotton could be grown successfully on a commercial scale in the Gezira area. This promoted the establishment of
Gezira Research Station in 1918. In 1931, the Agricultural Research Service was formed as an independent body,
and in 1935, it was absorbed into the Department of Agriculture and Forests. In 1944, the new Agricultural Research
Division (ARD) was established.

 

 

 

Click here to View

 

 

 

AGRICULTURE AND GM CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
CAN THEY BE MUTUALLY SUPPORTIVE

 

 

Ahmed S. El Wakeel

Organic agriculture is the oldest form of agriculture on earth. Organic farming refers to agricultural production systems used to produce food and fiber. The principles of organic agriculture are established by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). Certified organic production means production by approved organic methods. However, crops and livestock production are often disassociated from each other, and manures must be imported. Organic food is as safe to consume as any other kind of food. Farmers worldwide managed 32.2 million hectares of agricultural land organically in 2007, nearly 5 percent more than in 2006 and a 118-percent increase since 2000. 2.2 million hectares are certified according to organic standards. Over the past decade, sales of organic products have shown an annual increase of at least 20%, the fastest growing sector of agriculture. 

On the other hand, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) constitute synthetic inputs. In 1998, participants at IFOAM's 12th Scientific Conference issued the Mar del Plata Declaration, where more than 600 delegates from over 60 countries voted unanimously to exclude the use of GMOs in food production and agriculture. Nevertheless, cultivation of GM plants continues to increase worldwide. In 2008, GM crops rose by 9.4 per cent to occupy 125 million hectares. GM plants are utilized in 25 countries, of which Bolivia, Burkina Faso and Egypt are the newest. GMOs are very helpful for particular challenges like pests, bad soil, or droughts. Organic growers criminate GM contamination to have cost them valuable markets. Genetic pollution is also blamed for threatening organic production as a whole. A 2005/2006 FiBL survey showed that organic agriculture in Sudan occupies 200,000 hectares (650 farms) making 0.15% share of the total agricultural area. The evolution of organic agriculture in Sudan began in the late 1990s. Many products can be classified as fully organic but are not certified and are therefore exported under conventional marketing systems. A formal body and policy are needed to organize and certify these products but before that several constraints must be overcome. Developed countries moved toward organic farming as a lifestyle choice for communities with surplus food and against agricultural technology in general and GM in particular. Effective co-existence between GM crops, conventional and organic agriculture is imperative and has to be dealt with in existing legislation on agriculture, environment and health and consumer protection and will require additional legislation at the community level and in national laws and regulations.
Keywords: Organic Agriculture, GM crops, Co-existence, Mutual Supportiveness, food security.

 

اِقرأ المزيد: ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AND GM CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: CAN THEY BE MUTUALLY SUPPORTIVE?

Policies and Legislation of Organic Agriculture

Ahmed S. El Wakeel

Agricultural Research Corporation ARC

 


Introduction 

Traditional agriculture includes management practices that have evolved through centuries to create agricultural systems adapted to local environmental and cultural conditions. Owing to their nature, traditional systems do not use synthetic agricultural inputs. Many but not all, traditional systems fully meet the population standards for organic agriculture. Conventional agriculture, on the other hand is a system that is intensive and uses synthetic agricultural inputs. Conventional agriculture has proven to cause a number of problems such as loss of biodiversity, soil degradation, inefficient utilization of water, human health problems emanating from the use of pesticides, antibiotics and GMOs’ herbicides and agrochemicals.
Organic agriculture has been given many explanations and definitions but all refer to it as a system that relies on ecosystem management rather than external agricultural inputs. It is a system that takes into account potential environmental and social impacts and therefore eliminates the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation. These are replaced with site-specific management practices that maintain and increase long-term soil fertility and prevent pest and diseases.
According to FAO (2002) the term “Organic agriculture” refers to a process that uses methods considered to be environment-friendly from the production stages through handling and processing. Organic production is not merely concerned with a product, but also with the whole system used to produce and deliver the product to the ultimate consumer.

The modern organic agriculture movement evolved in developed countries, mostly in temperate regions. Now, with growing interest in organic cultivation as a management method for agricultural production in tropical and subtropical countries, greater attention needs to be given to developing standards and guidelines for organic agriculture applicable to tropical products and ecosystems. Motivation for converting to organic management can include market demand, lack of access to inputs, environmental concerns, social concerns or personal philosophy. In addition, farmers’ production targets need to be considered in terms of both quantity and quality, weighing the costs of production against the expected returns. Clear and objective information about both the potential and the constraints of organic agriculture is essential for any farmer considering conversion.

اِقرأ المزيد: Policies and Legislation of Organic Agriculture

 

ELKHTAB MOHAMMED ABDALLA ADAM

B.Sc. in Agriculture
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Khartoum
2006
A thesis Submitted to University of Khartoum in partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree of Master of Science (Agric.).
Supervisor
Dr. Ibrahim Saeed Ibrahim

 



CO. Supervisor
Dr. Sarra Ahmed Mohamed Saad
Department of Soil and Environment Science
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Khartoum
2010
DEDIACATION
TO MY
FATHER, MOTHER,
BROTHERS AND SISTERS
TO MY TEACHERS
AND MY FRIENDS

With love

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Thanks to Allah Almighty who give me the health and courage to complete this work.
I would like to express my deepest thanks and sincere appreciation to my supervisor Dr. Ibrahim Saeed Ibrahim, for his close supervision, valuable suggestions and fruitful criticism throughout the course of the study.
My thanks are also due to my co-supervisor Dr. Sarra A. M. Saad for her valuable advice, supervision and personal guidness.
I am indebted to Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, which sponsored this study.
My sincere gratitude and special thanks are due to all staff of the Department of Environmental pollution- Environment and Natural Recourses Research Institute (ENRRI) - National Center for Research (NCR) and to staff of the Department of Soil and Environment sciences– Faculty of Agriculture – University of Khartoum, for their unlimited help.
My thanks are also extended to my friends and colleagues, who were ready to give any assistance I asked for to complete this work
Abstract

Effect of compost and vermicompost produced from cotton residues and farmyard manure on teff grass (Eragrostis tef Zucc. Trotter) growth.
By: Elkhtab Mohamed abdalla Adam

The aim of this study was to investigate the use of earthworms to increase the rate of decomposition during the process of organic fertilizer production from cotton residues and farmyard manure as well as to compare between the effects of organic fertilizer in comparison with inorganic fertilizers using teff plant (Eragrostis tef Zucc.Trotter) as a test crop.
Composting was done in the demonstration Farm - Faculty of Agriculture University of Khartoum – Shambat. The four organic fertilizers were: cotton residues +soil, cotton residues +soil+ earthworms, cotton residues + soil+ farmyard manure and cotton residues + soil+ farmyard manure +earthworms. During composting sample were taken monthly and chemically analyzed for the following: pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, ammonium, ash, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, organic carbon, carbon: nitrogen ratio, total potassium and trace elements (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn).
Two pot experiments were conducting using teff plant for two seasons during 2008-2009, the effect of the four organic fertilizers was compared to that chemical fertilizer and control. The treatments were : cotton residues +soil = 1N, cotton residues + soil = 2N, cotton residues + soil+ earthworms =1N, cotton residues + soil+ earthworms = 2N, cotton residues +soil +farmyard manure = 1N, cotton residues +soil + farmyard manure =2N, cotton residues +soil+ farmyard manure+ earthworms = 1N, cotton residues + soil+ farmyard manure+ earthworms = 2N, urea = 1N+super phosphate =1P, urea = 2N+super phosphate =1P and control =0N and 0P), the design used was complete randomized design(CRD) with four replicates.
At the end of both seasons plant growth parameters measured included: plant height (cm), leaves number, tillers number and fresh weight. In addition plant samples were analyzed for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Acidity, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium were also determined in plant growth media.

Click here to View

 

ضوابط الإستيراد والتخزين والتداول والإستخدام
للمبيدات والأسمدة
ورقة بعنوان :
امكانية تصنيع الاسمدة الكيميائية فى السودان
إعداد وتقديم:

د. عبدالغنى عبدالجليل حسن


 

 

1- مقدمة
اكتشف الانسان منز زمن بعيد ان وجود المخلفات الحيوانية المتحللة بالتربة يزيد من خصوبتها ويحقق محاصيل وفيرة وتم التعرف علي الرماد المتخلف من حرق مخلفات الاشجار كمصدر هام لعنصر البوتاسيوم وايضا شكلت عظام الحيوانات مصدرا للفسفور.
لكن لوحظ ان خصوبة التربةالمكتسبة نتيجة لوجود بعض العناصر المخصبة تزول بعد حصاد كل محصول لذا دعت الضرورة لاضافة تلك العناصر المخصبة للتربة عنوة وبشكل مدروس.

السماد هو مركب (عضوي او غير عضوي- طبيعي او مصنع) يحتوي علي عنصر او اكثر من العناصر الكيميائية المخصبة. والسماد الكيميائي علي وجه الخصوص عبارة عن مركب غير عضوي مصنع يضاف للتربة بقصد تغذية النبات وتحسين ظروف نموه وزيادة الانتاجية الزراعية. 

 

يعتبر السودان اكبر الاقطار الافريقية و العربية من حيث المساحة و يمتاز باراضى زراعية شاسعة تتوقف خصوبتها على ثلاثة عوامل اساسية هى العوامل الفزيائية و الكيميائية و البيولوجية , ونجد ان معظم الاراضى الزراعية قى السودان تتميز بانخفاض فى نسبة النتروجين وهو عنصر بالغ الاثر فى تحديد خصوبة التربة. و لقد اكدت التجارب فى السودان ان استخدام الاسمدة الكيميائية يحسن من نمو النبات بشكل ملحوظ و يرفع من الانتاجية الزراعية , و بهذا نرى ان عملية تصنيع و انتاج الاسمدة و استخدامها فى الزراعة تعتبر من اربح الاستثمارات حيث يسترد كل من مصنع الاسمدة و الزارع الذى يستخدمة ما انفقاة فى زمن قياسى مع تحقيق ارباح مجزية بمرور الزمن
و تجدز الاشارة الى ان اختبار الاسمدة و ادخال استخدامها فى السودان جاء مع بداية القرن الماضى حيث بداء استخدامة فى الزراعة المروية بمشروع الجزيرة منذ اواسط القرن الماضى باستخدام سماد كبريتات الامونيوم ثم سماد اليوريا فى عقد الستينات كمصدر لعناصر الفوسفور و النتروجين ثم بعد ذلك ادخال استخدام الاسمدة الكيميائية المركبة و اللذئبة فى الاونة الاخيرة لعناصر اساسية و غير اساسية مختلفة و تشير بعض الدلائل الى فاعلية الاسمدة المركبة مقارنة بالبسيطة
عموما يمكن القول ان السودان ظل يستورد كميات متزايدة من الاسمدة سنويا وهى مكلفة فى اسعارها و ترحيلها و تخزينها و من المتوقع ان تصل حاجة السودان الفعلية فى العام من الاسمدة الكيميائية الى نحو المليون طن بتكلفة تقدر بنحو 300 مليون دولار امريكى فى القريب المنظور مما يحتم ضرورة الشروع فى تصنيعة محليا و هذا ما تحاول هذة الورقة النظر فى امكانيتة

2- مغذيات النبات غير الاساسية Micronutrients
يقصد بها تلك العناصر التى يحتاجها النبات بكميات قليلة( Traces) وعادة ما تتوفر فى التربة دون الحاجة لاضافتها مثل الحديد Fe ) ) والنحاسCu ) ) والزنكZn ) ) والمنجنيز Mn )) والمولبدنيوم ( Mo ) والبورونB ) ).

 

 

3- مغذيات النبات الاساسية Macronutrients
فيقصد بها تلك العناصرالتى يحتاجها النبات بكميات كبيرة نسبيا وتضاف للتربة مثل النتروجين NوالفسفورP والبوتاسيوم K. وهناك طائفة اخرى من هذه العناصر المغذية الاساسية للنبات هى الكالسيوم Cu والماغنيذيوم Mg والكربون C والهيدروجين H والاكسجينO وعادة ما يحصل عليها النبات من التربة نفسها او من الغلاف الجوى او من الماء .وتلعب الطائفة الاولى من العناصر المغذية الاساسية دورا هاما فى نمؤ النبات حيث تقوم:
 النتروجين بتحفيز نمؤ الجزور والاوراق.
 الفسفور بتحفيز نمؤ الثمار والحبوب.
 البوتاسيوم بتكوين النشويات والسكريات والسليلوز ويزود النبات بالمناعة اللازمة ضد الامراض.
4- الاسمدة الكيميائية:
4-1 انواع الاسمدة الكيميائية:
تنقسم انواع الاسمدة الكيميائية المعروفة تبعا لنوع العنصر الفعال فيها(Active Ingredient) الى ثلاثة اقسام اساسية هى الاسمدة النتروجينية و الفوسفاتية و البوتاسية. كما ان هناك قسم رابع يعرف بالاسمدة المركبة وهو خليط مكون من اى منهما مع الاخر

اِقرأ المزيد: امكانية تصنيع الاسمدة الكيميائية فى السودان

Go to top